Penatalaksanaan Perioperatif pada Bedah Dekompresi Mikrovaskular: Sajian Kasus Serial

Riyadh Firdaus, I Putu Pramana Suarjaya, Sri Rahardjo

Abstract


Dekompresi mikrovaskular (microvascular decompression/MVD) adalah terapi definitif dari spasme hemifasial, yakni suatu gangguan gerakan neuromuskular wajah. Spasme ini ditandai dengan kontraksi involunter berulang pada otat yang diinervasi oleh N. fasialis (N.VII) akibat penekanan oleh arteri, tumor atau kelainan vaskular lainnya. Prevalensinya mencapai 9–11 kasus per 100.000 populasi sehat, dan paling sering terjadi pada usia 40–60 tahun. Meskipun bukaan operasi MVD kecil yaitu di sekitar retroaurikula tetapi teknik anestesi-nya menggunakan prinsip-prinsip pembedahan fossa posterior. Bukaan lapangan operasi yang baik, kewaspadaan terhadap rangsangan ke batang otak maupun nervus kranialis dan kewaspadaan terhadap penurunan perfusi otak merupakan pilar-pilar utama tatalaksana anestesia pada MVD. Disajikan empat kasus spasme hemifasial dengan keadaan khusus. Kasus pertama operasi dilakukan pada pasien geriatri, pasien kedua dengan riwayat hipertensi, pasien ketiga dengan leher pendek dan asma, pasien terakhir dengan diabetes mellitus serta hipertensi. Pemantauan kestabilan hemodinamik, kedalaman anestesia dan relaksasi otot merupakan aspek penting yang menyertai tata laksana anestesi pada kasus ini.

Perioperative Management in Microvascular Decompression Surgery:
Case Series Report

Microvascular decompression (MVD) is the definitive surgery for hemifacial spasm. The symptoms is described as a repetitive involuntary muscle contraction which innervated by N.fascialis caused by compression of the nervus by enlarged artery, tumor or vascular malformation. Its happened to 9-11 people from 100.000 population, especially in 4th to 6th decades. Although MVD operation only need small opening in retroauricula area but it still use posterior fossa operation principles. They are sufficient work field, awareness of impulse to brain stem and cranial nerves, and decrease of cerebral perfusion pressure. We present four cases of hemifacial spasm, with variety of considerations. The first case was a geriatric patient, the second was with history of hypertension, the third patient has short neck and also history of hypetension and asthma and the last is with diabetes mellitus and history of hypertension. Hemodynamic monitoring, deepness of anesthesia and adequate muscle relaxation is important parameter of anasthetical management of these cases.


Keywords


microvascular decompression (MVD); pembedahan fossa posterior; microvascular decompression (MVD); fossa posterior surgery

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24244/jni.vol5i1.56

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DOI:  https://doi.org/10.24244/jni 

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